Cooling System | Types , Advantages and Disadvantages

 Cooling System | Types , Advantages and Disadvantages

The engine-cooling system of a vehicle not only keeps the engine cool, but also warm enough to ensure efficient, clean operation. A radiator dissipates heat, a fan or fans ensure adequate airflow for radiator cooling, a thermostat valve that opens when the desired operating temperature is reached, and a water pump (or coolant pump) circulates coolant through the engine, hoses, and other components are all system components. When the automobile is switched off and the engine cools, the coolant expands and exits the cooling circuit, and it returns when the car is turned off and the engine cools. Because engine heat is utilized to warm the car's interior, the cooling system incorporates features of the cabin ventilation system.


An engine continuously generates heat and transforms it into power while running. The engine generates heat by burning gasoline. But, as we all know, no engine in the world is completely efficient. There is always some heat energy that is squandered. If we do not release this heat energy into the atmosphere, the engine will overheat. This overheating will cause the engine to seize. Excess heat causes the piston within the cylinder to melt during engine seizing. An automobile is equipped with an engine cooling system to avoid the problem of overheating.


An engine cooling system is a component of the engine. It uses a moving fluid to remove excess heat from the engine. This fluid could be either air or water.

Types Of Cooling System : 

Or we can say there are two types of cooling systems
1. Liquid or indirect cooling system
2. Air or direct cooling system

LIQUID OR INDIRECT COOLING SYSTEM


An engine is encircled by water jackets in a liquid cooling system. This water is circulated in this water jacket by means of a pump.

The water running through these jackets removes heat from the engine. This heated water then goes via a radiator, where it is cooled by cold air blasted by a fan.

The water in this system absorbs heat from the engine, is cooled by the air, and then cycled back to the engine.

This is an indirect cooling procedure in which the actual cooling thing, air, does not directly cool the system. The air cools the water, and the water cools the motor.

The liquid or indirect cooling system is mostly employed in large engines, such as those found in automobiles and trucks.

Advantages

1. Compact design of engines
2. It provides even cooling to the engine
3. Engine can be installed at any location of the vehicle. It is not necessary to install engine at the front.
4. It can be used in both small and big engines

Limitations

1. Here water jacket becomes one extra part of engine.
2. Water circulation consumes power, thus reduces engine efficiency.
3. In case of failure of of cooling system, serious damage could happen to the engine.
4. Cost of system is considerably high.
5. It requires routine maintenance, and thus puts extra maintenance cost burden.

AIR OR DIRECT COOLING SYSTEM


An engine is cooled directly by air flowing past it in a direct cooling system. It is the same cooling mechanism that is utilised to keep our motorcycle engines cool.

Because air is in direct contact with the engine, it is also known as a direct cooling system.

Air cooling systems are utilized for tiny engines such as those found in motorcycles and lawnmowers.

Advantages

1. Design of engine becomes simpler.
2. Repair is easy in case of damages.
3. Absence of bulky cooling system makes system maintenance easily.
4. No danger of coolant leakage.
5. Engine is not subjected to freezing troubles.
6. Weight of the system is less.
7. It is a self contained unit, as it does not requires radiator, header, tanks etc.
8. Installation of air cooled system is easy.

Limitations

1. It is applicable to only small and medium sized engines.
2. It can only be used at the places where ambient temperatures is lower.
3. Cooling is not uniform.
4. Higher working temperature as compared to water cooled engines.
5. It produces more aerodynamic noise.
6. Specific fuel consumption is slightly higher.
7. Lower maximum allowable compression ratios.
8. The fan, if used consumes almost 5% power generated by the engines.


Characteristics of an efficient engine cooling system

The following are two main characteristics of an efficient engine cooling system.

1. It should be capable of eliminating approximately 30% of the heat generated in the engine while maintaining the engine's optimum operational temperature.

2. It should remove heat at a quicker rate when the engine is hot and at a slower pace when the engine is cold.

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