Principles of Motion Economy: 3 Categories | Industry

This article throws light upon the three categories of principles of motion economy. The categories are: A. Use of Human Body B. Arrangement of Workplace C. Design of Tools and Equipment.

A. Use of Human Body:

1. The two hands must simultaneously begin and finish their move.
2. Movements of the arm in the opposite direction, parallel and symmetric.
3. Hand and body movements should be limited to the smallest classification for successful performance of the work.
4. The two hands should not be idle (except for rest) at the same time.
5. The worker should be effective in momentum (reduce to a minimum otherwise).
6. Preferable smooth continuous and curved motions along straight lines with sharp directions.
7. Over regulated movements, ballistic movements (easy quick and accurate).
8. Make work possible to maintain a natural rhythm.
9. Fixations of the eye shall be as small as possible and as close as possible.

B. Arrangement of Workplace:

1. Make sure all instruments and materials have a specific fixed place. In other words, everything and everything in its place should be there.
2. Locate the materials and controls of equipment as close as possible to the place of use.
3. Gravity feed the material to the point of use (though bins and containers).
4. To find the best possible sequence of operations, pick materials and pools.
5. Good illumination for satisfactory visual perception.
6. Use drop delivery where possible.
7. Arrange work place height to permit alternate sitting and standing at work.
8. Provide chair of suitable type and height to permit good posture.

C. Design of Tools and Equipment:

1. Relieve hands if the work can be economically done by jig, fixture or pedal.
2. Combine two or more tools where possible.
3. Pre-position tools/materials where possible.
4. When fingers are loaded divide work with according to the capabilities of the fingers.
5. Locate levers and handler to permit work with least change in body posture and greatest mechanical advantage.

Two Hand Process Chart:
An example of such chart is shown in Fig. 18.6. It records in detail the movements of a worker’s two hands. It is utilized for the analysis of highly repetitive jobs with work confined to a fixed workplace. In Fig. 18.5 referred above inverted triangle symbol implies hold instead of storage.

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